References for “I Didn’t Want to Be One of the Contaminated People” (Cook 2013)

This is the reference list for Ryan J. Cook’s “I Didn’t Want to Be One of the Contaminated People”: Confronting a Mystery Illness in a Rural American Landscape. A pdf version, including both the main text and references, can be downloaded here.


Adams, Lynette. 2012a. “Today Show Speaks to Third Girl with Mystery Illness”. News 10 at 6:00. Rochester: WHEC 10.

——. 2012b. “First Adult with ‘Tourette’s-like’ Symptoms Comes Forward”. News 10 at 6:00. Rochester: WHEC 10.

——. 2012c. “EPA: 1970 Train Derailment Not Connected to Student Mystery Illness”. News 10 at 6:00. Rochester: WHEC 10.

——. 2012d. “LeRoy Businesses Feeling the Effects of Mysterious Illness”. News 10 at 6:00. Rochester: WHEC 10.

——. 2012e. “Brockovich Bails on LeRoy Meeting, Top Investigator Runs Public Meeting”. News 10 at 5:00. Rochester: WHEC 10.

Andriatch, Bruce. 2012. “Morphing Mass Hysteria into a Circus.” The Buffalo News, February 7, sec. Columns.

Arnold, Alexis. 2012. “Erin Brockovich Sends A Team To LeRoy”. 13WHAM News at 11:00. Rochester: WHAM 13.

Asedri, Vivian E. 2012. “Nodding Disease – What Do the Acholi and New Yorkers Share?” The Monitor, February 7, sec. Opinion.

Asztalos, Jaclyn. 2011. “Mysterious Illness At Leroy High School”. Eyewitness News at 5:00. Buffalo: WKBW 7.

Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran, and Aleksandar Janca. 2006. “Mass Hysteria Revisited.” Current Opinion in Psychiatry 19: 171–174.

Bartholomew, Robert E., and M. Chandra Sekaran Muniratnam. 2011. “How Should Mental Health Professionals Respond to Outbreaks of Mass Psychogenic Illness?” Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 25 (4): 235–239.

Bartholomew, Robert E., and Simon Wessely. 2002. “Protean Nature of Mass Sociogenic Illness.” The British Journal of Psychiatry 180 (4): 300–306.

——. 2007. “Canada’s ‘Toxic Bus’: The New Challenge for Law Enforcement in the Post-9/11 World/Mass Psychogenic Illness.” Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice/La Revue Canadienne de Criminologie et de Justice Pénale 49 (5): 657–671.

Bauerle, Tom. 2012. “Tom Bauerle with Dr. Lazlo Mechtler”. Online audio file. Tom Bauerle. Buffalo: WBEN 930AM.

Beamish, Thomas D. 2001. “Environmental Hazard and Institutional Betrayal: Lay-Public Perceptions of Risk in the San Luis Obispo County Oil Spill.” Organization & Environment 14 (1): 5–33.

Bleck, Abigail. 2012. “Corinth Girl’s Tics Are a Medical Mystery”. Newschannel 13 Live at 6:00. Albany: WNYT 13.

Blue, Amanda. 2012. The Town That Caught Tourette’s. London: Raw TV Ltd.

Boss, Leslie P. 1997. “Epidemic Hysteria: A Review of the Published Literature.” Epidemiologic Reviews 19 (2): 233–243.

Brean, Berkeley. 2011. “LeRoy Schools Warn Parents About Health Concerns”. News 10 at 5:00. Rochester: WHEC 10.

——. 2012. “Tourette-like Symptoms for LeRoy Teens Still a Mystery for Parents”. News 10 at 6:00. Rochester: WHEC 10.

Brown, Scott. 2012. “LeRoy Students Get Latest In High-Tech Brain Testing.” WGRZ 2, February 6.

——. 2013. “What Really Happened To The Girls In Le Roy?” 2 News at 11:00. Buffalo: WGRZ 2.

Callahan, Maureen. 2012. “What Makes Them Tic.” New York Post, February 12.

Casey, Liam. 2012. “The Mysterious Case of the Fainting Schoolgirls.” Toronto Star, July 8, sec. News.

Clarke, Sheba. 2012. “Firm Reveals Findings During Heated Community Meeting”. YNN News. Rochester: Your News Now.

Coates, Peter. 1998. Nature: Western Attitudes Since Ancient Times. Cambridge UK: Polity Press.

Coniglio, Raymond. 2012. “UPDATE: Le Roy Orders New Round of School Air Testing.” The Daily News Online, February 4.

Conte, Chris. 2011. “LeRoy Schools Looking Into Mysterious Student Health Concerns”. 13WHAM News at 11:00. Rochester: WHAM 13.

——. 2012. “Frustrated Parents Let Words Fly During LeRoy Meeting”. 13WHAM News at 6:00. Rochester: WHAM 13.

Cooper, Anderson. 2012. “Costa Concordia Cruised Close to Shore Before”. Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees. New York: CNN.

Cox, Kim. 2012. “Superintendent’s Column.” Le Roy Pennysaver & News, February 5.

Crichton, Alex. 2012. “Company Discusses Findings in LeRoy”. All Things Considered. Rochester: WXXI AM1370.

Crowley, Cathleen. 2012. “A Tick Behind All of the Tics?” Times Union, March 8.

DeGeorge-Pike, Kim. 2012. “School District Holding Community Meeting to Discuss Illnesses.” WGRZ 2, February 3.

DeSmit, Scott. 2012a. “At Least 12 Le Roy Students Diagnosed with Tic Symptoms.” The Daily News Online, January 12.

——. 2012b. “Scott DeSmit: Many Opinions, but No Answers in Le Roy.” The Daily News Online, January 28, sec. Opinion.

——. 2012c. “The Kind of ‘Hero’ We Can All Do Without.” The Daily News Online, August 25, sec. Opinion.

“Doctor: Mystery Illness Among Le Roy Girls Is Psychological.” 2012. The Daily News Online, January 18.

Dominus, Susan. 2012. “The Mystery of 18 Twitching Teenagers in Le Roy.” New York Times, March 11, sec. Magazine.

Douglas, Mary, and Aaron Wildavsky. 1983. Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Drantch, Ed. 2012. “EPA Taking Second Look at LeRoy Testing”. News 4 at 5:30. Buffalo: WIVB 4.

Edwards, Kassata. 2012. “Tourette-like Symptoms for Corinth Teens a Mystery for Parents.” WGRB 6 News, January 22.

“EPA Releases Groundwater Results from LeRoy Train Site.” 2012. WHEC 10, April 12.

Fischer, Dan. 2012. “A Dozen LeRoy HS Girls Suffer from Tics.” WBTA AM 1490, January 11.

Fraser, Marcie. 2012. “Mystery Illness Gaining National Attention”. YNN News. Albany: Your News Now.

Gallivan, Pete. 2011. “Tourette-Like Illness In Le Roy Still a Mystery”. 2 News at 5:30. Buffalo: WGRZ 2.

Gay, Mara. 2012. “Hysteric Breakthrough.” The Daily, August 20.

George, Leah. 2012a. “Family Says Toxic Plume Most Likely Not the Cause of Mystery Illness”. YNN News. Rochester: Your News Now.

——. 2012b. “Expert Doesn’t Buy Ergot Theory”. YNN News. Rochester: Your News Now.

Goffman, Erving. 1986. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Touchstone.

Groeger, Lena. 2012. “New York Court Affirms Towns’ Powers to Ban Fracking”. ProPublica. February 22.

Gruba, Mark. 2012. “Brockovich a No Show in LeRoy”. 8 News at 11:00. Rochester: WROC 8.

Gruenauer, Jason. 2012. “National Spotlight On Le Roy”. Eyewitness News at 5:00. Buffalo: WKBW 7.

Hallowell, A. I. 1955. “The Self and Its Behavioral Environment.” In Culture and Experience, 75–110. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Hass, Nancy. 2012. “What’s Really Causing Tourettes Symptoms at Le Roy High School?” Newsweek Magazine, February 13.

Hassett, Ashley. 2012. “New Cases Of Tic-Like Symptoms In LeRoy”. News. WBTA AM1490. September 11.

Hinshaw, Stephen P., and Andrea Stier. 2008. “Stigma as Related to Mental Disorders.” Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 4 (1): 367–393.

Holmes, Melissa. 2012a. “Another LeRoy Student Dealing With Mystery Illness”. 2 News at 5:00. Buffalo: WGRZ 2.

——. 2012b. “Doctor: Some LeRoy Students With Illness ‘All Better’”. 2 News at 5:00. Buffalo: WGRZ 2.

Hong, Angela. 2012. “Brockovich’s LeRoy Meeting Less About Tics, More About TCE”. 13WHAM News at 11:00. Rochester: WHAM 13.

Hopkins, Sarah. 2012. “LeRoy Teens Appear on ‘Today Show’.” WGRZ 2, January 18.

Israel, Steve. 2013. “Emotions Run High as Fracking Divides Neighbors.” Times Herald-Record, February 17.

Jayson, Sharon, and Elizabeth Weise. 2012. “Facial Tics, Verbal Outbursts Perplex Community.” USA Today, January 26.

King, Deanna. 2012. “Le Roy Parents Concerned About Mysterious Disease”. Rochester: WROC 8.

Kingston, Rachel. 2012. “LeRoy Parents Not Convinced by Tests”. News 4 at 6:00. Buffalo: WIVB 4.

Kirmayer, Laurence J, and Norman Sartorius. 2007. “Cultural Models and Somatic Syndromes.” Psychosomatic Medicine 69 (9): 832–840.

Kirmayer, Laurence J., and Allan Young. 1998. “Culture and Somatization: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Ethnographic Perspectives.” Psychosomatic Medicine 60 (4): 420–430.

Klinck, Patrick. 2011. “LeRoy Students Exhibit Tourette-Like Symptoms.” WGRZ 2, November 8.

LaDelfa, Dan, and Rachel Kingston. 2012. “Environmentalists Try to Get LeRoy Soil”. News 4 at 6:00. Buffalo: WIVB 4.

Lee, Yao-Tung, and Shih-Jen Tsai. 2010. “The Mirror Neuron System May Play a Role in the Pathogenesis of Mass Hysteria.” Medical Hypotheses 74 (2): 244–245.

McFadden, Cynthia. 2012. “Mystery Malady; No Known Cause.” Nightline. New York: ABC.

McGowan, Kate. 2012a. “Le Roy Community Wants to Know Why Students Became Ill”. YNN News. Rochester: Your News Now.

——. 2012b. “Teen Speaks Out for the First Time”. YNN News. Rochester: Your News Now.

——. 2012c. “LeRoy Woman Discloses ‘Conversion Disorder’, Talks Exclusively to YNN”. YNN News. Rochester: Your News Now.–conversion-disorder—talks-exclusively-to-ynn/.

McVige, Jennifer, and Laszlo Mechtler. 2012. “Le Roy Situation Q&A”Interview by Sandra Tan. Video chat.

Melville, Nancy A. 2012. “Neurologists Weigh In on Tourette’s-Like ‘Mystery Illness’”. News. Medscape. February 1.

Merrill, Michael. 2012. “A Horse Doesn’t Look Like A Pencil. You Don’t Need an MRI to Tell the Difference.” WBEN NewsRadio 930, February 5, sec. Opinion.—A-Horse-Doesn-t-Look-Like-A-Pencil–Y/12205546.

Moisse, Katie, and Linsey Davis. 2012. “Environmental Activists Respond To Mysterious Illness.” WKBW 7, January 29.–138287234.html.

Moran, Bill. 2011. “We Call BS”. The Break Room. Rochester: WCMF 96.5FM.

——. 2012. “Marge Fitzsimmons Unplugged”. The Break Room. Rochester: WCMF 96.5FM.

Moyer, Paul. 2012. “Health Crises Share Common Themes.” Democrat and Chronicle, February 4, sec. Opinion.

Mrozek, Paul. 2012a. “Dangerous Synthetic Drug Sees Increased Use Locally.” The Daily News Online, January 28.

——. 2012b. “Father of Girl with Tic Symptoms Awaits More Test Results.” The Daily News Online, February 2.

——. 2012c. “Doctor Treating 10 Le Roy Students Says Media Saturation Not Helping.” The Daily News Online, February 2.

——. 2012d. “Le Roy School Officials Post ‘summary of Ongoing Investigation’ on District Website.” The Daily News Online, February 7.

“No ‘Infectious or Environmental Causes’ in Le Roy Tourette Investigation.” 2011. The Daily News Online, November 27.

Noce, Christina. 2012. “LeRoy School Announces Environmental Test Results”. YNN News. Rochester: Your News Now.

Orr, Steve. 2012a. “Environmental Icons Drawn by Le Roy Cluster.” Democrat and Chronicle, January 27, sec. Genesee County.

——. 2012b. “Le Roy Officials: Speculation Harmful.” Democrat and Chronicle, January 31, sec. Genesee County.

——. 2012c. “Public Forum in Le Roy Offers Reassurance to Some, Angers Others.” Democrat and Chronicle, February 5, sec. Genesee County.

——. 2012d. “Conversion Disorder Q&A.” Democrat and Chronicle, February 24.

——. 2012e. “41 Years Later and No Cleanup of Le Roy Spill Site.” Democrat and Chronicle, April 1.

——. 2012f. “Two More Le Roy Students Diagnosed with Tic-like Symptoms.” Democrat and Chronicle, September 11, sec. Genesee County.

Owens, Howard. 2012a. “Expert to Discuss Tic Outbreak in Le Roy at Meeting Scheduled Wednesday.” The Batavian, January 10.

——. 2012b. “Report: Now 15 Tic Cases in Le Roy, Including a Boy.” The Batavian, January 25.

——. 2012c. “Specialist Questions Scientific Validity of Le Roy District’s Environmental Reports.” The Batavian, January 28.

——. 2012d. “Three of the Original 12 Students with Tic-like Symptoms in Le Roy Had Preexisting Conditions.” The Batavian, February 3.

——. 2012e. “School Officials Introduce Environmental Testing Firm to ‘Reassure’ the Community.” The Batavian, February 4.

——. 2012f. “Mechtler: Sensational Media Coverage Exacerbating Symptoms for Patients.” The Batavian, February 5.

——. 2012g. “Brockovich Researcher Said He Feels Obligated to Finish What He Started.” The Batavian, February 5.

——. 2012h. “Mechtler Disputes PANDAS Diagnosis for Le Roy Girls Seen by New Jersey Doctor.” The Batavian, February 6.

——. 2012i. “Dent Releases Statement Regarding Ongoing Coverage of Conversion Disorder Cases.” The Batavian, February 8.

——. 2012j. “As Media Coverage Subsides, so Do New Movement Cases at Dent.” The Batavian, February 17.

Papraniku, Laura. 2005. “Macedonia: Albanian Students in Poisoning Scare.” BCR, September 6.

Pies, Ronald. 2012. “‘Hysteria’ in LeRoy: A Skeptic’s View”. World of Psychology.

Pinsky, Drew. 2012a. “Interview with Teens Suffering from Mysterious Illness”. Dr. Drew. New York: HLN.

——. 2012b. “What Is the Mystery Illness in Le Roy, New York?” Dr. Drew. New York: HLN.

——. 2012c. “Is Toxic Spill Linked to Teens’ Illness?” Dr. Drew. New York: HLN.

——. 2012d. “Woman Has Same ‘Medical Mystery’ as NY Teens.” Dr. Drew. New York: HLN.

——. 2012e. “Father of 2-Year-Old Gunned Down by Wife’s Boss.” Dr. Drew. New York: HLN.

Pinsky, Drew, and Jim Spellman. 2012a. “‘Medical Mystery’ Linked to Toxic Spill?” Dr. Drew. New York: HLN.

——. 2012b. “NY Health Dept Releases Report on ‘Medical Mystery’; Can Conversion Disorder Be Cured?” Dr. Drew. New York: HLN.

——. 2012c. “Husband Kills Two Sons and Self in Blast; School Holds Meeting, Parents Still Upset.” Dr. Drew. New York: HLN.

Putman, Cierra. 2012. “Emotional Crowd Confronts LeRoy School Officials”. News 8 at 11:00. Rochester: WROC 8.

Redick, Geoff. 2012a. “More Testing at LeRoy H.S. as Anger Rises.” WBTA AM 1490, February 4.

——. 2012b. “Company That Researched LeRoy Report Discusses Findings”. YNN News. Rochester: Your News Now.

Rivers, Tom. 2012. “Media Glare Unwelcome, Le Roy Businesses Agree.” The Daily News Online, February 13.

Robach, Amy. 2012. “Another Student from Le Roy High School Comes Forward with Tourette’s-like Symptoms”. Newscast. The Today Show. New York: NBC.

Robach, Amy, and Ann Curry. 2012. “Authorities in Le Roy, New York, Baffled That Over a Dozen Teenage Girls Are Suddening Exhibiting Tourettelike Symptoms”. The Today Show. New York: NBC.

Robach, Amy, and Matt Lauer. 2012. “Dr. Laszlo Mechtler Says 12 Girls Suffering from Mystery Illness in New York Have Mass Psychogenic Illness”. Newscast. The Today Show. New York: NBC.

Roman, Dayelin. 2012. “Girls’ Illness Still a Puzzle.” Times Union, January 30.

Rose, Charlie, and Erica Hill. 2012. “For January 30, 2012.” CBS This Morning. New York: CBS.

Scott, Mark, and Eileen Buckley. 2012. “EPA Begins Removal of Drums from Le Roy.” WBFO 88.7FM, February 22.

Simpson, Ian. 2013. “U.S. Replaces Airport Scanners in Bid for More Privacy”. NBC News. January 18.

Small, Gary W., and Jonathan F. Borus. 1987. “The Influence of Newspaper Reports on Outbreaks of Mass Hysteria.” Psychiatric Quarterly 58 (4): 269–278.

Sohn, Emily. 2010. “Radiation Risk from Flying Dwarfs Body Scanners : DNews”. Discovery News. November 24.

Spellman, Jim. 2012. “Contentious Meeting Reflects N.Y. Community Divided by Medical Mystery.” CNN, February 4, sec. Health.

Stephanopoulos, George. 2012. “Ticking Town; More Develop Tourette’s Symptoms”. Good Morning America. New York: ABC.–abc-news.html.

Stephen, Michele. 1999. “Witchcraft, Grief, and the Ambivalence of Emotions.” American Ethnologist 26 (3): 711–737.

Tan, Sandra. 2012a. “Le Roy Students, Public Still Seek Answers.” The Buffalo News, January 28, sec. Genesee County.

——. 2012b. “Officials Rush to Resolve Doubts in Le Roy Case.” The Buffalo News, February 1, sec. Genesee County.

——. 2012c. “3 Le Roy Students Had Pre-existing Conditions.” The Buffalo News, February 3, sec. Genesee County.

“Tic-like Symptoms Return To LeRoy.” 2012. 13WHAM News, September 11.

“Tourette-Like Symptoms In LeRoy HS Still Not Understood.” 2011. WHAM 13, November 29.

Trent, Les. 2012. “The Tourettes-Like Hysteria the Whole Country Is Talking About”. Broadcast. Inside Edition. New York: syndicated.

“Update:  LeRoy Students Exhibit Tourette-Like Symptoms.” 2011. 2 News at 5:30. Buffalo: WGRZ 2.–LeRoy-Students-Exhibit-Tourette-Like-Symptoms.

Waitzkin, Howard, and Holly Magaña. 1997. “The Black Box in Somatization: Unexplained Physical Symptoms, Culture, and Narratives of Trauma.” Social Science & Medicine 45 (6): 811–825.

Wakefield, Sarah, and Colin McMullan. 2005. “Healing in Places of Decline: (Re)imagining Everyday Landscapes in Hamilton, Ontario.” Health and Place 11 (4): 299–312.

Walker, Jacquie. 2012. “Girls Near Albany Share LeRoy Symptoms”. News 4 at 10:00. Buffalo: WIVB 4.

Ward Thompson, Catharine. 2011. “Linking Landscape and Health: The Recurring Theme.” Landscape and Urban Planning 99 (3–4): 187–195.

Watson, Amy C., Victor Ottati, and Patrick Corrigan. 2003. “From Whence Comes Mental Illness Stigma?” International Journal of Social Psychiatry 49 (2): 142–157.

Wessely, Simon C. 1987. “Mass Hysteria: Two Syndromes?” Psychological Medicine 17: 109–120.

White, Evan. 2012a. “More Testing Recommended for LeRoy High School”. 13WHAM News at 5:00. Rochester: WHAM 13.

——. 2012b. “Parent of LeRoy Teen: It’s Not Conversion Disorder”. 13WHAM News at 11:00. Rochester: WHAM 13.

Wooten, Michael. 2012. “LeRoy Student Speaks Out About Illness, Lack of Answers.” WGRZ 2, January 28.

Zach, John, and Susan Rose. 2012. “LeRoy Mystery Illness – Dr. Mike Merrill & Ann Suchyna, Part I”. Buffalo’s Early News. Buffalo: WBEN 930AM.